English] Mitra-Varuna: an essay on two Indo-European representations / Georges Dumezil. Inc. translated by Derek Coltman p.I’ 3-dcI9 BL6. Indo- European. In his work, the late Georges Dumézil, arguably the most important modern mythologist, In effect, Mitra-Varuna presents an archaeology of representations of. Mitra-Varuna by Georges Dumezil, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.

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In the Library Request this item to vaeuna in the Library’s reading rooms using your library card. Yet forms of collective ownership with periodic redistribution of wealth are known to have existed among the Slavs even into the historic era.

Mythes etdieuxdes Germains, p. He also retains this feature: Thanks to this combination of the magic bond invented by Odhinn and the heroic pledge provided by Tyr, the gods are saved, and the wolf will MITRA-VARUNA remain leashed until the end of the world – at which time, I might add, he will wreak his revenge. A further element, to be introduced shortly, will enable us to clarify this situation somewhat, if not to interpret it.

The Gandharva are half-horse, and also tend horses; whereas the brahmans, as we have seen, must cease all religious activity while on horseback. The authors who accept the second hypothesis relating to nexum and mutuum, either sociologists or writers influenced by sociology, do not hesitate to restore a magical or quasi-magical value to the nexum Popescu-Spineni, Die Unzulassigkeit des Nexum als Kon- trakt, Iassi,cf. Then, remaining alone at the entrance to the bridge, he casts terrible and menacing looks at the Etruscan leaders circumferens truces minaciter oculoschallenging them individually, insulting them collectively.

Mitra-Varuna: An Essay on Two Indo-European Representations of Sovereignty by Georges Dumézil

Inwith the Indian Gandharva, the Greek centaurs, and the Roman Luperci, I found myself tackling a topic more amenable to definition and interpretation; but I was still unable to confine myself to the essential thrust of the facts or to the truly telling and useful parts of my exegesis.

Perhaps, in pagan times, it was a pathway to the other world, inhabited by a spirit of that other world? Now, the tyranny of Bress is purely economic.

Speed extreme rapidity, sudden appearances and disappearances, lightning raids, etc. The Scandinavian triad is defined in precisely this way: Whenever such a couple – or one of its two components, thereby explicitly or implicitly involving the other – finds itself engaged in a conflict, its adversary is always external, heterogeneous, as in the conflict we have just observed between Indra and Varuna, or that between the sacramentum and the nexum.

Moreover, this characteristic is certainly ancient since in Iran, although the Avesta and the Mazdean texts speak of the Gandarova Gandarep.

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Now let me give an account of the various forms the incident took. In the triad of gods, Jupiter and Mars are homogeneous, but Quirinus is not.

Or fight on section 57?

Cuny, Revue de Philologie,pp. I leave historians of philosophy to evaluate these coincidences, and to decide whether they are mere chance or whether the two dualistic philosophies developed in part from the early myth of bipartite cosmic sovereignty. I highly recommend this book for those interested in avruna, Indo-European studies, Hinduism, Roman history, the Rig Veda or anthropology.

Once bound, the wolf will not be able to free itself, Tyr will lose his hand, but the gods ddumezil be saved.

Arnold has just published a book entitled Mavors. And various texts do suggest, with differing nuances, a functional division of this kind: First, the order of the episodes is reversed: Yes, I know that there is a difference between a hundred and dumeil. They also stand opposed like Varuna and Mitra, with whom there is an even varunq exact correspondence with the Roman couple – with a masculine form of Fides – Jupiter and Dius Fidius.

Grimm, Deutsche Rechtsaltertiimer, II,p.

Last, there seem to be links, symbolically at least, with night, or with dawn and dusk: Mitra-Varuna, a penetrating inquiry into the first of mjtra functions – religious and political sovereignty – is among the first of his t In his work the late Georges Dumezil, arguably the most important modern mythologist, mutra that every Indo-European religious and social system was structured according to three primary functions: In opposition to a capitalist morality based upon magico-religious sovereignty, it erects a heroic mystique that has as its justification the shifting, unpredictable task of the milites.

And Pururavas eventually perished as a result of his own excesses, cursed by the rsi, by the Wise Varunq, as Roman Romulus was by the senatores he had not been afraid to defy. Codes and his wild looks preceded Scaevola and his burned hand, whereas Nuada and his severed djmezil precede Lug and his magic grimace.

To the old principle that can be formulated as ius nullum nisi summum, he at least dares to substitute something that already resembles the principle that we still revere while often ignoring it in practice: The flamen dialis is forbidden to touch raw meat Aulus Gellius, X, 15; Plutarch, Roman Questions, ; the brahman must not eat any meat that has not first been offered in sacrifice Manu, IV, ; cf.

Mitra-Varuna : an essay on two Indo-European representations of sovereignty in SearchWorks catalog

India merely developed this germ of meaning in terms of human feelings, without losing sight of its ancient economic and social origins. Rudra shot his arrow, and Prajapati fell. Similarly, all lightning belongs to Jupiter, though it would be ridiculous to maintain that the Romans essentially sense the night sky in Jupiter.

In all this, there is no economic element whatsoever, unless we take into account the links recorded by tradition between Tarquinius and forced labor Livy, I, War is not, in fact, the bloody hand-to-hand combat of battle; it is a decision, arrived at by combat between two parties, and governed by precise rules in law. The Gandharva are drinkers, whereas the brahmans abstain from drinking.


Picard, Revue Archeologique,p. For, as we have seen, mutuum is the res borrowed; it is the material of the act and not the act itself. Material of this sort will not long tolerate the imposition of an order not derived from its own nature and history. Livy adds that these next formed a considerable military body, the very corps that eclipsed all others in the ensuing war, both in its courage and its deeds magna ea manusfuit; neque alio rum magis in Volsco beilo virtus atque opera enituit.

Mitra-Varuna: An Essay on Two Indo-European Representations of Sovereignty

On this point I shall draw gerges two traditions only; but the agreement between them is significant. I am not interested in arguing about the reality of Brutus the Consul, or Publicola, or the importance that the gens Horatia and the gens Mucia might or might not have had in distant times.

In contrast, the flamen dialis must neither touch nor name either dog or goat Plutarch, Roman Questions,where, in the case of the dog, Plutarch himself stresses the contrast between the two behaviors. Plutarch alone Publicola16after having quoted this opinion first, adds an extremely interesting variant: What are the lines of force running through the ideological field within which all the details are placed?

Jitra, the warrior-god, first among his brothers the Marut, leader of a band of heroes, is set here in opposition to Varuna the magician, king of the Gandharva. The religion of the Vedic era is rich in individualized gods, most inherited from the Indo-Iranian community, some from the Indo- European community.

The flamen dialis may not touch or even name a dog Plutarch, Roman Questions, ; the brahman may not read the Vedas when he hears a dog bark Manu, IV nor eat food that has touched a dog, or has kitra from people who breed dogs ibid. The best known of these three traditions is the one concerning the head of Mimr, which possesses knowledge of the runes and teaches it to Odhinn. Let us remember the mutilation of Tyr: The same observation applies to the other passage in this book see the section on Dius Fidius: